Mitochondrial dna dating validating business rules
To get to your house, you may need to turn on a few side streets.
Haplotree The haplotree, back in the ancient days of 2002 used to hold less than 100 haplogroups, each main branch called by a different letter of the alphabet.
The entire tree includes SNPs that John tested negative for, and their branches which are not relevant to John – although we certainly didn’t know that they weren’t relevant before he tested.
However, he may want to reference the large and accurate scientific tree, so all information is provided to John. Some several thousands of years later, his descendant had a mutation that created haplogroup R defined by the SNP M207, in yellow.
SNPs, mutations that define haplogroups are considered to be “once in the lifetime of mankind” events that divide one haplogroup into two subgroups, or branches.
A haplogroup can be thought of as the ancient genetic clan of males – specifically their Y DNA.
John could choose three ways to test for additional SNPs to discover his actual terminal SNP.
John could selectively test one SNP at a time to see if he was positive, meaning that he has that mutation.
If John had selected any of the SNPs on the list above to test, he would have tested positive.
Estimated haplogroups are quite accurate, as far as they go.
However, by necessity, they aren’t deep haplogroups, meaning they aren’t the leaves on the end of the twigs of the branch of your haplotree. In essence, what a haplogroup provided with STR testing tells you is the name of the town and the main street through town.
If you had asked John about his terminal SNP, he would have probably told you R-M269.
At that time, to the best of his knowledge, that WAS his terminal SNP – but it wasn’t really.