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Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented.In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money.It was designed to calculate astronomical positions.It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to circa 100 BC.The planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is often attributed to Hipparchus.1945 under this name; [in a] theoretical [sense] from 1937, as Turing machine".
An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer circa 1000 AD.Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later.Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use.Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen).Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory.